^ Collection of Mohawk Legends BY AREN AKWEKS AKWESASNE COUNSELOR ORGANIZATION ST. REGIS MOHAWK RESERVATION HOGANSBURG, NEW YORK Queen's University Libraries PRESENTED BY Dorothy M. SI iter, 1996 Kingston, Ontario, Canada The EDITH and LORNE PIERCE COLLECTION of CANADI ANA Queen's University at Kingston A MESSAGE We, Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, dedicate this pamplet, "Col- lection of Mchawk Legends", to our friend and faithful brother, Ha-e-sas or Arthur W. Abbey of Cowlesville, New York. Mr. A. W. Abbey, long known as a friend of the Indian is a keen student of the culture and history of the Six Nation Iroquois Confederacy. The latchstring of! the door to his house is always on the outside waiting for any Indian to pull and enter. There they are always welcome and there they have found a true friend and brother, Mr. Arthur W. Abbey. Because of his sincere friendship Mr. Abbey was taken into the Seneca Hawk Clan on the Tonawanda Reservation, Sept. 3, 1939. He was given the name of Hae-e-sas, Hae-e-sas sends the following message to the members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization :- TO MY BROTHERS AND SISTERS, GREETINGS! I sincerely believe in the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of all mankind and the practice of the Golden Rule toward all men regardless of race, color or creed. I sincerely believe that all men were created equal and should be judged as such. In all fairness to my Indian brothers and sisters, I believe that a true history of their relationship toward one another and to the white man has never been taught in our schools. I believe that the history of the life and doings of the Amer- ican Indian has been taught purely from the view point of a few white authors who refused to see or consider the rights in any way of those people, whose customs differed from their own ideas. I have found many noble men and women to-day among our Indian neigh- bors and by admssions of our own writers, many very fine and loyal people have lived in the past, even long before white man entered the unspoiled virgin domains of the Red Man. White Man must admit that the virtues of the Red Man are many and he also must admit with a degree of shame that the shortcomings of a few Red Men were due in many cases by the unfair dealings and practices of the white man's law. I have sincerely endeavored to bring to those, I come in contact with, the true facts as I find them. May peace, harmony, good will and brotherly love rest upon you all. YOUR BROTHER HAE-E-SAS (ARTHUR W. ABBEY) COPYRIGHT 1948 BY RAY FADDEN Nothing contained herein may be used in whole or in part without written permission from the author. Printed in Malone, N. Y., by Lanctot Printing Shop 1 How Man Was Created BY AREN AKWEKS After Sat-kon-se-ri-io, the good Spirit, had made the animals, birds, and other creatures and had placed them to live and multiply upon the earth, he rested. As he gazed around at his various creations it seemed to him that there was something lacking. For a long time the Good Spirit pondered over this thought. Finally he decided to make a creature that would resemble himseflf. Going to the bank of a river he took a piece of clay and oat of it he fashioned a little clay man. After he had modeled it, he built a fire and setting the little clay man in the fire waited for it to bake. The day was beautiful. The songs of the birds filled the air. The river sang a song and, as the Good Spirit listened to this song, he became very sleepy. He soon fell asleep beside the fire. When he finally awoke, he rushed to the fire and removed the clay man. He had slept too long. His little man was burnt black. According to the Mohawks this little man was the first Negro. His skin was black. He had been over baktd. The Good Spirit was not satisfied. Taking a fresh piece of day, he fashioned another man and placing him in the fire waited for him to bake, determined this time to stay awake and watch his little man to see that he would not be over baked. But the river sang its usual sleepy song. The Good Spirit, in spite of all he could do, fell asleep. But this time he slept only a little while. Awakening at last, hcj ran to the fire and removed his little man. Behold, it was half baked. This, say the Mohawks, was the first white man. He was half baked! The Good Spirit was still unsatisfied. Searching along the rives.- bank he hunt- ed until he found a bed of perfect red clay. This time he took great carei and model- ed a very fine clay man. Taking the clay man to the fire, he allowed it to bake. Determined to stay awake, the Good Spirit stood beside the fire. After awhile Sat-kon-se-ri-io removed the clay man. Behold, it was just right - - a man colored as the red color of the sunset sky. It was the first Mohawk Indian. The Discovery of Fire, A Tradition BY AREN AKWEKS In olden times when a Mohawk boy had reached the age of 14 winters (years), it was customary for him to make a journey, accompanied by his father, to some sacred place back up in the mountains. There, after receiving instructions from his father, the youth would remain alone for at least four days. During these four or more days the Mohawk boy would perform a ceremony known as the Dream Fast. This Dream Fast was very important to the Indian boy of long ago. To be success- ful in the Dream Fast meant that the Indian was no longer a youth but a man. During the fast the Clan Spirit of the young Mohawk would appear to him in a dream and reveal to him the bird, animal or plant that was to be the Mohawk's guardian throughout his life. After the fast he must secure something from the creature of his dream and must wear it in his medicine bag as a sort of a charm. The Mohawk Iroquois had three clans which were, the Bear Clan, Turtle Clan and Wolf Clan. Should the dreamer belong to the Turtle Clan, the Spirit of the turtle would appear to him in a dream and show him his future guardian. If tho clan spirit did not appear to him during the fast, his father who visited him daily would release him and he departed home, a failure. He could not have two chances. The dreamer could leave his fasting place after sunset for brief periods. He could drink water to quench his thirst. He was not allowed to eat any food. Otjiera belonged to the Bear Clan and was the son of a famous leader. He had many honors to his credit. No youth of the Mohawks was fleeter on foot than he. He led in the games and was one of the best lacrosse players of his nation. He could shoot his arrow farther and straighter than any of his friends. He knew the forests and streams and would always return from the hunt loaded down with deer meat, which he always divided with the needy of his people. He could imitate the calls of the birds. They would come when he called and would sit on his shoulders. He was the pride of his people. The time for the Dream Fast of Otjiera had come. It was in the Moon of Strawberries. Otjiera was eager to try the test of strength and endurance. High up- on the mountain, on a huge ledge of rock, hei built his lodge of young saplings. He covered it with the branches of the balsam to shelter it from the rains. He removed all of his clothing save his breech clout and moccasins. Appealing to his clan spirit he entered the crude shelter. Four suns had passed and yet the young warrior had not been visited by the clan spirit. The fifth sun had dawned when his father appeared. He shook the lodge poles and called for Otjiera to come forth. Otjiera in a low and weak voice begged his father to give him one more day, His father left, telling Otjera that on the morrow he must return to his village. That night Otjiera looked down from his lodge on the mountains. In the distance he heard low rumblings of thunder. As he listened thei thunder became louder and louder. Bright flashes of lightning lit up the heavens. "Great Thunder Man, Ra-ti-we-ras", prayed the youth, "Send my Clan Spirit to help me." He had no sooner spoken than a blinding flash of lightning lit the sky and a rumble of thunder shook the mountain top. Otjiera looked and beheld his clan spirit. A huge bear stood beside him in his lodge. Suddenly the bear spoke, "This night, Otjiera, you shall have a magic that will not only aid you, but will also aid all of the Ongwe-Oweh, the Real People (Indian)." There was a blinding flash of lightning and Otjiera awoke from his vision. He rubbed his eyes and looked for the clan spirit. The bear was gone. The youth won- dered what his guardian helper would be. He looked out from his lodge. The storm had not yet left the mountain. Suddenly he heard a strange sound outside near the lodge! It was a dreadful screeching sound such as he had never heard before. He wondered what kind of animal or bird made such a dreadful noise. The sound had ceased. Then, almost over his head, he saw the cause of the sound. The wind was caus- ing two balsam trees to rub their branches against each other. As the wood rubbed, the friction caused the strange, screeching sound. As Atjiera watched he saw a strange thing happen. The strong wind, rushing up the mountain, caused the trees to bend and sway more rapidly. Where the two trees rubbed against each other, a thin string of smoke appeared. As the boy watched, the wood burst into flame. Otjiera was, at first, frightened. He started to run. None of his people had ever seen fire so near and it was feared. The boy remembered his clan spirit. "This must be what the great bear meant", thought the boy. That day Otjera took two pieces of dry balsam wood. He rubbed the wood to- gether as he had seen the storm do the night before. He soon tired and was about to throw the wood away when he noticed a thin thread of smoke coming from the wood. He rubbed harder and soon a tiny spark appeared. By using some dry cedar bark and grass he soon had a fire. When his father and two chiefs came that noon ; they found a happy Otjiera. He had a very powerful helper, a strong medicine which afterwards was to help all of his people. That was how fire came to the Indian people of long ago. ****** <?s^r ****** The Wampum Bird BY AREN AKWEKS Long ago a war party of Mohawks captured a young man of the Wampanoag Nation. For some years the Mohawks had been at war with these people. The cap- tive boy was allowed to live, and was given permission to move freely about the Mohawk village. He was closely watched so that he might not escape back to the Wampanoag country. One day a young Mohawk hunter came running into the village. He was filled with excitement for he had seen a strange bird in the forest. This bird was cover- ed with wampum beads. Immediately a hunting party was organized and the hunters set out to try and capture this wonderful bird. The hunters, after walking a short distances, came upon the bird. The bird was as the hunter had described it. It was covered with white and purple feathers. The head chief, as soon as he saw the bird, offered his beautiful daughter to anyone who could get the bird, dead or alive. All of the hunters tried to hit the bird with their arrows. They filled the air with their arrows. Occasionally the bird was hit by an arrow and off would fly a shower of wampum. New wampum appeared on the bird to take the place of the fallen wam- pum. Finally, after trying to hit the bird for some time, the best hunters began to get discouraged and, one by one, they gave up trying to get the bird. The young Wampanoag captive, from the unfriendly tribe, asked the chief if he could try his luck. The Mohawk warriors did not want this to happen and even threatened the boy's life. The chief interfered and told the boy that he could try. "If warriors have tried and failed, surely a mere boy cannot bring down the bird", said the chief. The warriors finally agreed and the boy lifted his bow and fitted an arrow. The swift arrow pierced the heart of the bird and it fell to the earth. Its. wampum plumage enriched the people. The boy married the Chief's daughter and with the marriage came peace between the two nations. The boy said, "Wampum shall bring and bind peace and it shall take the place of blood." The Invention of the Bow and Arrow, a Tradition BY AREN AKWEKS Long ago the Indian people did not have the bow and arrow for a weapon. At that time, a spear was the common weapon used in the hunt. One day a young Indian hunter, whose name was Oh-gwe-luhn-doe, left his vil- lage in search of a bear. His only weapon was a long spear, tipped with flint. Oh-gwe-luhn-doe walkeid a long way. He saw no signs of bear. After a while, the thought came to him that perhaps he would find a bear in a thickly forested glen that was not far away. In this particular place there were wild grape vines. It was at the time of the Moon of Falling Leaves (October). The grapes would be ripe and the bear would, no doubt, be eating them. Ohgweluhndoe was not wrong in his guess. As he entered the thickest part of the glen, he caught sight of a huge black figure. It was Oh-gwa-li, the bear, and he was busy eating wild grapes. From time to time he would grunt little squeals of pleasure as he gulped the wild grapes down. The young hunter crept very close. He was almost within reach of the bear. Quietly he raised the spear for the death stroke and would have materialized but for one thing. As Ohgweluhndoe was about to throw the spear, his foot slipped on a rock and he fell sprawling to the ground, almost under the bear's claws. With a startled grunt the hunter looked up. He still held the spear, but now he was in no position to throw it. Oh-gwa-li, the bear, ord- inarily would have run away from a human hunter; but the sudden appearance of the young Indian startled him, and instead of running away as most black bears do, he turned and started for the hunter. Ohgweluhndoe did not take long in getting to his feet. With one jump he was on his feet, and in a moment was heading through the forest. The bear, seeing that the hunter was running from him, gained courage and quickly took after Ohgweluhndoe. For a little while the two, the hunter and the bear, kept the same speed, but in a short time the bear gained rapidly on the hunter. Ohgweluhndoe knew that in a very little while the bear would have him and that probably he would be torn to pieces. He thought of his wife and son waiting home for his return. This thought made him determined to kill the bear or die in the attempt. Turning quickly, he made ready to throw his spear, but the end of the spear had caught on a twisted grape vine which was clinging to the top of a small ash sapling. The hunter tried to pull the spear free from the vine, but he only suc- ceeded in bending the sapling. The bear was almost upon the Indian. Ohgweluhndoe made one more effort to pull the spear loose, As he tugged at the spear he pulled; the sapling to the ground. He did not wait long. With a startled yell, he let the spear go and turned to run. He had not run many steps when he noticed that the bear was not following him. He looked back. The bear was on the ground with the spear stuck through his neck. The blood was rapidly reddening the leaves as Ohgwali gave a few final kicks before death came. The surprised hunter went back to see what had happened. The spear which had caught on the vine had caused the sapling to bend, thus forming a bow. The vine had been the bow string, the sapling the bow. When the hunter had pulled the spear he had caused the sapling to bend. When he dropped the spear the sapling had sprung upright again. The force of this spring had whipped the vine straight, at the same time, throwing the spear ahead into Ohgwali's neck. The hunter again took the spear and put the end of it on the vine. Pulling the. vine back, he bent the sapling. When the sapling had bsnt almost to the ground, he released the spear. It shot through the air. Thus, the bow -was invented. In time the Indians made smaller bows out of smaller saplings. Instead of a grapevine bow string they used one of rawhide. Instead of a heavy spear, they used an arrow, tipped with flint and winged with feathers. The bow became a priceless "weapon for the Indian people of long ago. 6 The Rabbit Dance BY AREN AKWEKS In a wild section of the Adirondack Mountains there camped a hunting party of Mohawk Indians. During the Leaf - Falling Moon (October) many of the Mo- hawks left their main villages along the Mohawk River and traveled north to the mountains where the hunting was good. There, in the heavily forested mountain valleys, the hunters would store up deer meat and deer skins for winter use 1 . When a goodly supply had been gathered the people followed the hunting trails south to the main Mohawk settlements. Some of the hunters usually remained in the moun- tains during the winter months because of the good trapping of fur-bearing animals in that region. Beaver skins were valuable for trade ^ven before the white man came with his guns and fire-water to exchange for them. In this particular hunting camp lived two little Indian boys. One was called Hot-no-wah, the Turtle, and the other was nicknamed Oweya, the Wing. Early one morning while the hunters were making preparations for a deer drive, the Turtle and Wing set out on a little exploring trip of their own. In their hands they carried their little bows. A quiver of arrows was strapped across each of their backs. The little boys walked on and on through the forest. They walked silently and were very careful not to make any noise for their eyes were on the lookout for game. Perhaps they could surprise a chipmunk or a squirrel. After walking quite a distance from camp, they came to a little clearing in the pines. As they approached this clearing, they noticed little trails or paths running into it. These, they knew, were rabbit runways so they tightened their grip on their bows and were more on the alert for game. The boys walked to the center of the clearing and looked around for rabbits. Suddenly, there was a loud thumping sound. It seemed to come from the ground. Looking ahead the boys, to their amazement, saw a huge brown rabbit. The huge creature was as large as the boys. It stood for a few mornpnts looking at the Httle Mohawks. Turtle and Wing forgot all about hunting rabbits. Never be- fore had they seen such a huge rabbit. At first they were frightened, but. as the 1 rabbit made no move to harm them, their fears left them. After looking the boys over, the rabbit again thumped the ground with his hind legs. Immediately a long line of rabbits appeared, running rapidly down one of the runways. Quickly they approached the clearing where to the surprise of the two boys, they performed all sorts of queer antics. There seemed to be hundreds of rabbits. There was an endless line of rabbits running, hopping, skipping, and chasing each other down the narrow rabbit path and into the clearing. They seem- ed to be everywhere and all were very frolicsome as they hopped and skipped about. Somtimes-they seemed to be playing the game, "Follow the Leader". They ran here and there, several in a line, all following one rabbit. Occasionally they ran in circles, hopping and kicking as they went. Meanwhile, the large chwA rabbit remained near the boys. He watched his lively tribe but in no way did lit take part in the rabbit games except to stand guard. As the boys watched the rabbits skip and hop around them, they £orgot their fear of the big chief rabbit. Boylike they wanted to play tag with the rabbits. Turtle made a grab for one of the rabbits and when he missed him, set out in pursuit. WirTg forgot the big chief rabbit and joined the chase. Without warning a loud thump! Thump! Thump! was heard. The big chief rabbit was warning his tribe. Immediately every rabbit stopped still in his tracks! They seemed to be frozen to the ground, so motionless did they become. The now startled boys ceased their running and gazed in fright at the big rabbit. The chief rabbit gave two more thumps. Immediately the other rabbits jumped into action! Following each other single file, they left the clearing and disappeared up the run- way from where they had come. The big chief rabbit waited until the last rabbit had left the clearing. Then, giving a final thump, he too hopped up the rabbit trail and was soon lost to view. The two boys were very surprised at what they had seen. Quickly they return- ed to the hunting camp where they told their father what they had seen. Their father laughed and said that they were good story tellers. But their wise old grand- father said that the boys were fortunate to have seen what had happened. "You saw the Rabbit Dance'', said he. "The rabbits, like the Indians, have their own trails and their own council ground. They hold councils and move from place to place. They have secret signals which are given by thumps on the ground with their hind legs. Very few people have seen the Rabbit Dance, and those who are so fortunate as to have seen it, usually become very good hunters. The big rabbit that you saw was the big chief rabbit and he was watching over his people", and the old man wisely shook his head as he went into the bark house. THESE ILLUSTRATED PAMPHLETS — dealing on the history, culture and legends of the Ho-de-no-sau-ne or Six Nations Iro- quois Confederacy, have been collected and written by Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden). The future of our young Indian children depends upon the kind of history taught today. Our forefathers fought for their way of life. Our young warriors have died on battlefields all over the world in the interests of the American Way of Life. The American Way of Life originated in this country and you may trace its birth in the history and culture of our ancestors, the North American Indians. The now com- plete Iroquois Life History Series offers potent help in training young people in early American History. The collection of Indian History. Pamphlets paints a strong and educational picture of Indian life, a pic- ture that will create pride, interest, respect and reverence for the prin- ciples of freedom and justice for which the old Indian stood. (For information concerning the Six Nation Pamphlets, write to: Akwesasne Counselor Organization, Hogansburg, N. Y.) Are you interested or concerned in the welfare of the Indian of to- day? Do you want to know what is being done for and what is being done against the Indians of the United States and Alaska? Do you have a sincere desire to know what your government is doing for or against the Indian People? Do you know that there is in this country an All- Indian organization made up of Indian leaders from Indian tribes of Am r erica who can supply you with this information? The leaders of this organizattion are unselfish men and women who are devoting their lives to help better the living conditions of the Indians of this country. They are the "watch dogs" of our people and are trying to keep the public (People of all colors) informed of every movement that concerns Am- erican Indians. They issue several bulletins every year that contain the above mentioned data. They warn our people of legislation that may be of help or of harm to them. They act as a bulwark against those who would harm our peoplev These bulletins, telling the public of happenings in the government that concern Indians, are mailed without charge to members contributing three dollars or more to the work of the NCA.I, and to any non-member contributing five dollars or more. This worth- while organization, the National Congress of American Indians, (Room 618 Dupont Circle Bldg., Washington 6, D. C.) has done wonderful work for our Indian People. HELP TO SERVE A WORTHY CAUSE! Do you know that there is an Indian magazine titled "Smoke Sig- nals" that you can subscribe to? This publication is interesting and edu- cational and is dedicated to the American Indian. It is especially valu- able in schools and youth camps. It is published Bi-monthly by the In- dian Association of America. If you are interested in the Indian his- tory of the past and in Indian doings of the present— this is where you can secure it. A subscription to "Smoke Signals" is $1.50 a year. (In- dian Association of America, Inc., P. O. Box 702, Newark 1, New Jersey. Are you interested in the history of the Indians of Canada and would you like to know what is happening to our people across the line right now? This information can be secured from another unselfish group of Indians who have devoted their lives to the cause of their people. The monthly paper or magazine titled, "The Native Voice" is the voice of the Native Canadians and it is published once a month by: The Native Voice Publishing Company, Ltd., 429 Standard Bldg., 510 West Hastings St., Vancouver, B. C. The subscription rate for one year ig $1.00. This In- dian magazine-is educational, interesting and will give you, not only hap- penings of the past but, will keep you informed on every movement today that is for or against the welfare of the Indians of Canada — a very worth- while paper!